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The Process of a Water Treatment Plant

Before discussing how a water treatment plant (WTP) works, Lets know what it is. As the name suggests, water treatment is a process which makes the raw water usable for specific purposes by improving its quality. The place where all the treatment process is carried out is called a water treatment plant.

What are the different steps involved in water treatment process?

A traditional water treatment process includes these following steps:

  • Collection
  • Screening and Straining
  • Addition of Chemicals
  • Coagulation and Flocculation
  • Sedimentation and Clarification
  • Filtration
  • Disinfection
  • Storage of clean water
  • Distribution

Let’s discuss them all in details.

  • Collection: – This basically refers to collection of water from source. The source may be a lake, local river, reservoir, or a simply a boring water system. A series of pumps and pipelines are used to connect the source to a treatment plant. Sometimes water treatment plant use water from more than one source. In India, remote water treatment plants that are used for irrigation purposes mostly use ground water as primary source.
  • Screening and Straining: – If you consider surface water sources like lakes, river, etc. you acknowledge they contain differing measures of suspended and unwanted materials. These materials may incorporate turbidity, shading, taste, odor, microorganisms, fish, plants, trees, garbage and so forth the material might be natural or on the other hand inorganic, suspended or disintegrated inert or biologically active, and vary in size from colloidal to a tree trunk. A portion of these bigger things can block hardware in the treatment cycle, for example, a tree limb stalling out in a water pump impeller. So the principal cycle in traditional water treatment is to screen or on the other hand strain out the bigger things. This is frequently cultivated utilizing a big metal screen, regularly called a bar screen, which is set before the water source consumption. Huge things are caught on the screen as the water goes through it. These screens should regularly be raked or wiped off.
  • Addition of Chemicals: – Once the bigger items are screened out, a sample of water is taken from the source and tested. It is done to check what type of treatment it requires and at which amount. It is done on regular basis to check the water quality of the source. The screened water is then streamed into FRP pressure vessels. Further chemicals are added that make the suspended particles which are floating in the water clump together to form large particles called floc. There are different chemicals available in the market which can be used based on the type of treatment required. These are called coagulants. FRP pressure vessels are used as they can handle a lot of pressure, doesn’t react to chemicals and are corrosion free. Thus they can maintain the water quality inside them.
  • Coagulation and Flocculation: – The coagulant is added to water and a thorough mixing is done. Then floc is formed by slowing the speed of mixing. Continuous mixing must be done to ensure the weight of floc increases. The clumping of particles to form floc is called flocculation. The FRP pressure vessel is the flocculator.
  • Sedimentation and Clarification: – In this process the floc particles are allowed to settle down at the centre-bottom of the FRP vessel unit. These sediment particles are further cleared at regular intervals.
  • Filtration: – Clarified water enters the channels from the top. Gravity gets the water down through the channels where it is gathered in a channel framework at the lower part of the unit. There are a wide range of kinds of materials (media) utilized in channels. The most well-known being sand and fine gravels.
  • Disinfection: – Once filtration process over, water seems clear, but it isn’t. However, bacteria and viruses may still be present. To ensure these are destroyed, disinfection process implemented. The most common disinfection process is chlorination. The water is further chlorinated to remove bad odor. This is done with the help of a chlorinator and a dosing pump, which adds a dosage of chlorine at particular interval.
  • Storage of clean water: – Once the disinfection process is complete, the water is further stored. In most cases water storage tanks are used. In village areas for easy mobility and affordability, plastic storage tanks are used. Ample amount of water must be should be stored for emergencies.
  • Distribution: – It is the final step. The stored water is distributed throughout the community or the field with the help of large pipelines, smaller pipelines, connected through valves. This is how water comes out when you turn your tap on.

This is all you need to know about water treatment plant and its working. FRP pressure vessel and water storage tank are the key material needed. One cleans the raw water; other stores the clean water & helps in distribution.


Since last 5 years Surya International has taken command of several projects regarding water treatment plants in the states of Bihar, Assam and has successfully completed it. Design, Construction, Supply, Testing, commissioning of Water Supply Schemes with Electric Driven Pumps or Solar driven pumps has been executed.

List of some of the projects are mentioned below:

1IRON REMOVAL PLANT (IRP)543300Araria, Katihar, Purnia, Kishanganj (Bihar)
3ARSENIC REMOVAL PLANT (ARP)7616Lakhisarai (Bihar)
Sahebganj, Johrat (Assam)

The list mentioned above only contains projects that are completed. Surya International is still working on many water treatment plants operated through both electrical pumping and solar pumping. For every water treatment unit installed 2000+ households get clean water to feed upon. Surya International acts as a ray of hope for the backlash and underprivileged society of the state by incorporating new ideas & executing projects like these.

Surya International has also developed the idea of integrating a solar pumping irrigation system, which has been a great help to the farmers who don’t have access to the canal irrigation system in rural or suburban areas. Being MNRE impaneled, Surya International is a supplier for solar-powered water pumps from 0.5 HP to 7.5 HP capacities in Bihar, Odisha, Jharkhand, and many other states of India.

Around 4000 solar-powered pumps have been installed across the country for a different government organization to promote agriculture, drinking water, and Livelihood.

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